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History of Education in Nigeria



MODULE 1
Unit 1    Introduction to History of Education in Nigeria
This unit is designed to give an insight into some major concepts in History of Education. It will also expose you to concepts of history; sources of history as well as that of education and forms of education and history of education. By the end of the unit, you would have an over-all view of the importance of History of Education.
Explanation of the Term History
History is an account of what actually happened in the past which has a link to what is happening at present and can help in planning or projecting for the future.
Source of History
There are two types of source of history
Primary source
Secondary source
Primary source: these refer to various information, about real names of people, place and events, gathered by the historian from somebody or people who was or were eyewitness(es) to the incident.
Secondary source: when a historian consults books written by somebody or persons who was or were not eye-witness(es) to the incident he is referring to secondary source of information given out by somebody or person who was or were not privileged to have first hand information on the event.
Forms of education
Education can be classified into three:
Formal, Informal and non-formal education
Formal education:
This is the type of education which is received in the regular formal school setting for instance, the primary, secondary and tertiary institutions.
Informal education:
This process of education includes all other agencies of learning outside the formal learning system. The agencies includes the home(family) church etc.
Non – formal education:
This form of education has some basic characteristic of formal education like planned program of action, contact person etc.


The Concept of History of Education
History of education, as an academic discipline could be viewed as the application of historical methods or skills in studying and improving the education process of the society. It tries to study the educational practices of the past,  noting their strength and weakness, so as to build a better system for the present and future generation. It gives a starting point to educational practices of a people and tries to defend some misconception and misinterpretations placed on the educational system by some foreign authors.
Importance of History of Education
1.     It helps us to appreciate the various aspect of our past education process so as to link them to the present.
2.     Enables us know what type of education we had and the purpose it served in the past.
3.     Gives us the opportunity of knowing our past mistakes in our education with the view to making necessary amends.
4.     Gives us the opportunity of studying other people’s educational ideals and programs with the aim of developing ours.
5.     It also gives us a solid foundation to plan for our present and future education development.
6.     Guides us to proffer some positive solutions to our present day educational problems.
Tutor Marked Assignment
1.     Examine any two of the following basic concept:      (1) History (2) Education (3) History of Education.
1.     Education: is exclusively used for the development of human beings in the cognitive, effective, psychomotor and psycho productive domains.
2.     History of Education: is concerned with the study of how societies have transmitted their culture from one generation to another. It also explain how education became an instrument of problem solving activities in the society from one age to another.
2.   State five reason History of Education should be studies in teacher education programmes in Nigeria;
1.     History of education, therefore could be seen as past efforts at solving man’s socio-economic problems in order to improve the present and the future.
2.     History of education is the study of major educational development in the society which took place in the past for the present and future generation.
3.     History of education help to studying and improving the education process of the society.
4.     It tries to study the educational practices of the past
5.     It gives a starting point to educational practices of a people and tries to defined some misconceptions and misinterpretation.

Unit 2
Philosophy of Traditional Education in Nigeria
In this context of philosophy, we refer to the peoples way of thinking, belief, feeling and doing things. Philosophy of education varies from one place, time and people to another.
The people of Nigeria, like their counterparts all over the world, had their peculiar way of life, a culture which they handed over from one generation to another before the introduction of Islamic and Christian education. That education process, which is still in existence today is the traditional education. The education is a complete system of life as it provides for the people assistance in almost every aspect of their needs: physical, socially, mentally, spiritually and morally.
Aims of Traditional Education
1.     Preserve the cultural heritage of the extended family, clan and the tribe.
2.     Adapt members of the new generation to their physical environment and teach them to control and use it, and
3.     Explain to them that their own future depends on the understanding and perpetuation of the institutions, law, language and values inherited from the past. (Amaele, 2004, pp. 5 -6).
Characteristics of Traditional Education,
1.     Limited, specializing training.
2.     Traditional education is a life-long process
3.     Multi-dimension in character in terms of its goals and means employed to achieve the goals (methodology)
4.     Education relies more on information instruction
5.     Education is basically conservative and opposed to change.
Stages of Education Development in the Nigeria Traditional Society
1.     Infancy
2.     Childhood
3.     Adolescent
4.     Adulthood
1.     Infancy: this cover the ages, the first five years of the child. The mother and father as well as the immediate members of the family are the first group of teachers at this level.
2.     Childhood: this cover the ages of six to twelve. At this age, the child moves out for the discovery of the world around him beyond his mother and immediate family.
3.     Adolescent stage: of learning  starts at the age of twelve. It is a period of renewed vigor in play and learning.
4.     Adulthood: education in the traditional society is a continuous and endless one.
Advantages of traditional education.
1.     It inculcate high level of disciple among the people
2.     The education makes everybody a functional member of the society
3.     It unites every member of the society brings peace and happiness to all
4.     The education is adapted to the needs of the society.
Disadvantages of traditional education
1.     It is full of  dos and don’t as well as fear and threats.
2.     It is mainly informal, hence limiting the span of knowledge
3.     It does not have well defined structure duration or time.
4.     Traditional education lacks uniform standard
Tutor Marked Assignments
1.     Discuss the philosophy of traditional education in Nigeria.
Philosophy, we refer to the people’s way of thinking, beliefs, feeling and doing things. Philosophy of education varies from one place, time and people to another.
2.     List four aims of traditional educational.
1.     Perpetuate but not to change the cultural heritage of the clan.
2.     Prepare and equip children with the required knowledge, skills, mode of behavior and beliefs for playing their roles in adult life.
3.     Inculcate a sense of belonging
4.     Discipline the child to mould his character and to inculcate in him,, desirable moral qualities such as sociability, solidarity, courage, humility as well as obedience.
3.   What are some of the basic characteristics of traditional education?
1.     Education is a collective and social activity.
2.     Multi-dimensional in character in terms of it goals and the means employed to achieved the goals (methodology).
3.     Planned in gradual and progressive steps in order to achieve conformity with the successive stages of physical, emotional and mental development of the child.
4.     Education relies more on informal instruction.
5.     Limited specialized training
6.     Education depends so much on oral tradition
7.     Traditional education is practical and general toward specific situations
8.     Regions, ethnics and education are inextricably related. They are interwoven and inseparable
9.     Education is basically conservative and opposed is change
10.                       Education can take place at any time and place
11.                       Traditional education is a life-long process

4.   Briefly state the various stages of Nigerian traditional education:
1.     Infancy: this cover the ages, the first five years of the child. The mother and father as well as the immediate members of the family are the first group of teachers at this level.
2.     Childhood: this cover the ages of six to twelve. At this age, the child moves out for the discovery of the world around him beyond his mother and immediate family.
3.     Adolescent stage: of learning  starts at the age of twelve. It is a period of renewed vigor in play and learning.
4.     Adulthood: education in the traditional society is a continuous and endless one.
5.   List four advantages and four disadvantages of traditional education.
5.     It inculcate high level of disciple among the people
6.     The education makes everybody a functional member of the society
7.     It unites every member of the society brings peace and happiness to all
8.     The education is adapted to the needs of the society.
Disadvantages of traditional education
5.     It is full of  dos and don’t as well as fear and threats.
6.     It is mainly informal, hence limiting the span of knowledge
7.     It does not have well defined structure duration or time.
8.     Traditional education lacks uniform standard

Unit 3   Higher Education in the Traditional Nigerian Society
Classification of Traditional Education
There are three different levels of traditional education. These are:
1.     Education for living in conformity with the tradition: this type of education is referred to as the basic education which every member of the society must acquire to be able to live a purposeful life in the society.
2.     Educational for occupation and economic self-reliance education be near equivalent to the secondary level of education in the formal structure.
3.     Education for special occupation: this level of education is usually secret and exclusive to respective families or cults.
Types of Higher Education in Nigerian Traditional Society
1.     Secret Cults: serve as institutions of higher education in traditional society. It is as this level that the secret power (real or imaginary) profound native philosophy, science and religion are mastered.
2.     Traditional medicine: this follows definite nature laws for the restoration maintenance and correction of bodily disorder.
Method of Traditional Medicine
1.     Massaging
2.     Faith-healing
3.     Hydro-Therapy
4.     Heat-Therapy
Divination: is an approach used in the traditional society to unveil the causes of diseases or misfortunes including death.
Tutors Marked Assignment
1.     What are the major similarities and differences between general education and higher education in Nigeria traditional society?
2.     Mention the three different discipline of higher education in the traditional society;
1.     Secret Cults: serve as institutions of higher education in traditional society. It is as this level that the secret power (real or imaginary) profound native philosophy, science and religion are mastered.
2.     Traditional medicine: this follows definite nature laws for the restoration maintenance and correction of bodily disorder.
3.     Divination: is an approach used in the traditional society to unveil the causes of diseases or misfortunes including death.
3.   Discuss any three different method used by the traditional medicine practitioners.
1.     Herbalism: this is the systematic restoration of health through the administration of herbal therapies. It is a very important aspect of traditional medicine. The herbalist used different part of the plant: leaves, roots, back, flowers juice and so on, and sometime part of the animals in the preparation of the therapies.
2.     Massaging: this is an important method of traditional medicine. It is the methods of healing the soft tissue of the body are methodically manipulated to achieve the desired cure.
3.     Hydro-Therapy: this is the treatment of disease through the use of water of various forms and temperature. It takes the form of cold bath, steam bath and hot bath. Each of these forms is prepared with some herbs based on the nature of the disease. It is used in the treatment of so many kinds of diseases.

Unit 4  Islamic Education in Nigeria
Islamic education came first into the northern part of Nigeria in the 11th century AD through trade and spread to some part of the present south western part of the country, through the 19th century Jihad. The education has made great impact in Nigeria in the area of politics, religion and even commerce. It has become part of the life of some Nigeria today.
Quranic system of Education in Nigeria
Quranic schools originally started in the premises of mosque. The school later began to operate in the respective teachers’ house, preferably in the sitting room, verandah or courtyard. These was no standard regulation or regulation or quality, as everything depended on the availability of space and the quality and personality of the individual teacher.
But today, Quranic schools are restructured to meet tenets of modernization in Nigeria. There are about four categories of Quranic schools.
·        The first category is called “Ile Kewu” model.
·        The second category of Quranic school is neither strictly formal nor completely informal.
·        The third category of Quranic schools. These schools function like the formal schools with approved syllabuses, classroom, timetables.
·        The forth category of Quranic schools. They are run like formal secondary schools. Unlike other categories mentioned earlier, this categories of Quranic schools use Engllish Language and the medium if instruction for all subject offered including Islamic studies.
Tutor Marked Assignment
1.     Discuss the philosophy of Islamic education philosophy, from the ordinary man’s perspective, is a reflection of the people’s world views. Shofield (1972) defined it as a process of asking particular questions in particular areas”
In Islams, the Holy Quran offers explanations for all the constituents of philosophy. The nature of God is not in doubt . He is perceived as the Almighty Allah. Man is presented as a representative of God on earth. He is made up of the indivisible components of body, soul and intellect. Man is created good and innocent and is charged to do good for he must surely give account of his works on earth on the day of judgement.
2. List out some of the basic contents of Islamic education.
           Arabic syntax and morphology evolved to protects the Quran from ungrammatical utterances by foreign speakers. Tasfir, which stands for commentary on, and interpretation of the Quran, evolved to facilitate its comprehension. Tajwid, the art of reading the Quran aloud , according to established rules of pronunciation and intonation , was introduced to facilitate its recitation; and Arabic lexicography developed so as to define and clarify specific vocabulary and expressive of the Quran .
3.  Examine the introduction of Islamic education in Nigeria today.
   Within the present formal(secular) schools system in Nigeria , Arabic and Islamic Religious Knowledge have become relevant at all levels . Both subjects (Arabic and Islamic Religious knowledge) gained recognition into the school certification examination in Nigeria in the late 1950s (Balogun 1985). Balogun further argued that IRK (Islamic Religious Knowledge) and Arabic language syllabi designed by the west African Examination Council came into use in 1968 an d1997 respectively for the subjects. In 1975 Islamic studies syllabus was designed for the Higher Schools certificate and General certificate in Education (GCE) Advance level.
As we have already discussed in module on , there existed , in Nigeria , two highly developed education system before the introduction of western education. The two system of education, which are still relevant today are the traditional education and the Islamic education.
Module 2    Advent of Western Education in Nigeria
The western education system in Nigeria started in 1842 by the Christian missionaries. This early activity was concentrated within the Lagos area (Badagry and Abeokuta) with little effort beyond.
The era between 1842 and 1882 is regarded in the history of education in Nigeria as period of exclusive missionary enterprise within this period the various missionary organizations in Nigeria ran the education according to their respective philosophies, level of man power available as well as the availability of material and financial resources. The colonial government was silent over the educational activities of the missions. The non-interference of the British colonial government in Nigeria at the period under review.
Unit 1    The Early Missionaries and the Development of Education in Nigeria
THE FIRST CHRISTIAN MISSIONARIES ATTEMPT IN NIGERIA
However, the 1842 Christian missionary entry into Nigeria was not the first. It is important to note that as early as 1472, the Portuguese merchant had visited Lagos and Benin. By 1485 they had started trading activities with the people of Benin. Consequently, by 1515 the catholic Missionaries through the influence of Portuguese traders had established a primary school in the Oba’s palace for the children of the Oba and his chief and they were all converted to Christianity. The Catholic missionary activity also extended to Brass, Akassa, Warri where churches and schools were established, However, the catholic influence was almost wiped out by the slaves trade which ravaged West Africa for nearly three hundred years [Fafunwa 1974: 74-75].

Reason for European Penetration into Nigeria in the 19th Century
1.     Industrial Revolution
2.     Anti-Trans Atlantic Slave Trade
Activities of the early missionaries in Nigeria.
After the abolition of slave trade in 1833 by then British Empire, freetown in sierra Leone (West coast of Africa) was acquired for the settlement of the liberated Africans. Some of the liberated Africans became converted Christians and educated in the formal schools system in Freetown.
The early Missionary School in Nigeria
The early mission schools were established in the church premises. Each Christian denomination was actively involved in the establishment of their own churches and schools. They used education as a means of converting Nigerian into their various denominations. Because of this overriding interest on evangelism, the missions confined themselves within the area of literacy, religion and moral education.
The Aim of the Mission Schools .
The mission schools aimed at leading the people to Christ through the following:
1. The training of indigenous manpower to carry out the evangelical work to the various local communities.
2. The training of lower manpower to serve as interpreters, messenger, clerks, cleaners, e.t.c for the various missions and the British Businessmen.
The early missionaries, some of who were ex-slaves or sons of ex-slave , came to Nigeria on invitation in the 1840s , to evangelize (spread the gospel of Christ )shortly after their arrival , mission schools were established. The early missions schools made some impacts even though they had some problems.
Problem of the early mission schools
1.     Lack of central school laws; leading to non-uniform standard for running schools.
2.     The schools lacked standard qualification for teachers
3.     The focus of the school was religion
4.     The school lack adequate supervision as well as teaching and learning material and necessary facilities
5.     In some cases, some older pupils were used to teach the younger one; this affected quality
Some Contributions of the Early Misssions
1.     Introduced Christianity to Nigeria
2.     Laid the foundation for Western Education in Nigeria
3.     Introduced English language which becomes the nation’s official languages of communication among various tribal and ethnic groups.
MARKED ASSIGNMENT TUTOR
1. Examine the activities of the early missionaries in Nigeria .
            After the abolition of slave trade in 1833 by then British Empire, freetown in sierra Leone (West coast of Africa) was acquired for the settlement of the liberated Africans. Some of the liberated Africans became converted Christians and educated in the formal schools system in Freetown.
2. Discuss some of the major problems and prospects of the early missionaries in Nigeria.
                   I.            Lack of central school laws; leading to non-uniform standard for running schools.
                II.            The schools lacked standard qualification for teachers
             III.            The movement of teachers and pupils was not checked resulting to irregular attendance.
             IV.            The focus of the school was religion
                V.            The was acute shortage of fund and this affected the availability of qualified teachers
             VI.            There was lack of common syllabus and no standard textbooks and the few that were available were not relevant to the local people.
          VII.            There were trained teachers and to training colleges.
       VIII.            There was no regulated standard examination for all the schools
              IX.            There was no uniformly in teachers condition of service and no job security for the teachers
                 X.            The method of teaching was mainly by role

Unit 2   The Colonial Government Involvement in Education in Nigeria (1872 – 1882)
Why the British Colonial Government did not Intervenue Early in Education in Nigeria
The era between 1842 and 1882 is regarded in the history of education in Nigeria as period of exclusive missionary enterprise. Within this period the various mission organizations in Nigeria ran the education according to their respective philosophies, level of manpower available, as well as the availability of material and financial resource. The non-interference of the British colonial government in Nigeria at the period under review could be attributed to the following factors:
1.     Political factor
2.     British Government Policy on Education
3.     Financial factor

Aims of Colonial Education in Nigeria
i.            To produce low level manpower that could be cheaply used as interpreters messengers, artisans and clerks
ii.            To produce some indigenous youth who could help the rural farmer in planting, harvesting and processing some needed cash crop which were exported to Europe as raw materials to their industries, and
iii.            To produce semi-literate citizens that could conform and be absorbed as instruments for actualizing the British philosophy of colonialism (Nduka 1975).
1882 Education Ordinance
The ordinance had the following provisions:
        i.            Grant to training colleges and institutions for teachers
     ii.            The constitution, powers and duties of the local Board of Education, and
   iii.            Classification of schools
   iv.            Freedoms of parents as to religious instruction of their children
     v.            Grants to be used for building and teachers salaries.
Basic Importance of the 1882 Ordinance
1.     It was the first colonial government formal pronouncement on education in Nigeria;
2.     It brought out a regulatory body to monitor and control the excesses of the various Christian mission schools;
3.     It encouraged the admission and education of helpless children
Problems of the 1882 Ordinance
1.     The ordinance was almost identical with the English Elementary education act of 1870 that was targeted to satisfy the needs of England at that time.
2.     Both the Board of Education and the local Board were a direct importation of English Board of Education and the school Boards.
3.     The clause on religion instruction inserted into the 1882 ordinance was copied from the Cower-Temple Clause of English Education Act of 1878, which was aimed at resolving the religious controversy among English people.
4.     The ordinance ignore the genuine aspiration and demands of the local people (Nigerians) to develop their local languages as a vehicle for education (Osokoya 1975 pp. 31-32, Amaele, 2003).
Tutor Marked Assignment
1.     Discuss the activities of the colonial government in Nigeria before 1882. The western education system in Nigeria started in 1842 by the Christian missionaries. This early activity was concentrated within the Lagos area (Badagry and Abeokuta) with little effort beyond the British colonial interest began when there was a dynasty problem in Lagos between Kosoko and Dosumu. The British Governemnt used the opportunity and bombarded Lagos in 1851 and in 1861, Lagos then became a colony under British government. Gradually, British authority in Nigeria began to have interest in the education this they did initially through grants-in-aid and ordinances.
2.     Discuss the aims of colonial education in Nigeria
Aims of Colonial Education in Nigeria
        i.            To produce low level man-power that could be cheaply used as interpreters, messengers, artisans and clerks
     ii.            To produce some indigenous youth who could help the processing some needed cash crop which were exported to Europe as raw materials the their industries
   iii.            To produce semi-literate citizens that could conform and be absorbed as instrument for actualizing the British philosophy of colonialism (Nduka 1975)
3.  List out five provisions of the 1882 education ordinance
        i.            The constitution of a general board of education at such places as they may consider desirable.
     ii.            The constitution, power and duties of the local board of education
   iii.            Freedom of parent as to religious instruction of their children
   iv.            Grants to be used for school buildings and teachers salaries
     v.            Special grants to be made to industrial schools.
4.  State four prospect and four limitation of the said ordinance for Nigeria education.
Four Prospects are
1.     It was the first colonial government formal pronouncement on education in Nigeria
2.     It brought out a regulatory body to monitor and control the excesses of the various Christian mission schools
3.     It encouraged expansion of schools as well as government establishment of schools
4.     It encourage the admission and education of helpless children


Unit 3   1887 AND 1916 EDUCATION ORDINANCES.
The need for the 1887 Education Ordinance
The 1887 education ordinance was seen as the first effective effort made by the government to promote education and control the rapid expansion of education by the missions, and was specifically meant for the colony of Lagos covering Lagos Island, Ebute-meta, yaba, Badagry. This was a cautions but practical and articulated ordinance that laid down certain basic principles which have become the foundation of educational policies of Nigeria (Osokoya 1995 Taiwo 1980:17).
The Provision of the 1887 Education Ordinance
1.     Grants-in-aid to schools and teacher training institutions
2.     Power of the Board to make, after and revoke rules for regulating he process of grants-in-aid
3.     Empowering the governor to open and maintain government schools
4.     Safe guards as to religious and racial freedom
5.     Certificate of teachers
Major advantage of the ordinance
1.     The ordinance also encourage manual and technical skills by approving special grants to industrial schools.
2.     The provision which kicked against racial discrimination was welcomed by nationalists who for schools to be opened to children without distinction of religion or race.
3.     It also encouraged a gradual expansion of mission schools, extending beyond the Lagos area.
4.     In addition, the government accepted more responsibilities for secondary a nd primary education by providing grants-in-aid and scholarship for deserving primary schools leavers.
The need for the 1916 Education ordinance and code.
Before 1914 there were two separate protectorates known as the southern and Northern protectorates. Each was under a different administrative authority. However, in 1914 the two were amalgamated and Lord Fredrick Luggard, who was before then the governor of Northern protectorate, was appointed Governor-General of the new Nigeria.

The objectives of the 1916 Ordinance and Code
i.            Rural as well as urban education
ii.            Co-operation between government and mission
iii.            Training on the formation of character and habits of discipline
Major achievement of Ordinance
i.            It was the first ordinance that took care of the whole country
ii.            It provided for increased financial participation of government in the schools
iii.            It brought a measure of government control over education as a whole.
iv.            it also encourage high level co-operation between the government and missions.
Tutor Marked Assignment
1.  Discuss, extensively the objective and achievement of the 1887 education ordinance
i.            It was the first ordinance that took care of the whole country.
ii.            It provided for increased financial participation of government in the schools
iii.            It also encourage high level co-operation between the government and missions
iv.            It brought a measure of government control over education as a whole.
2.  Examine the importance of the 1916 education ordnance and the code on the past and present education system in Nigeria.
1.     Training on the formation of character and habits of discipline
2.     Co-operation between government and missionaries
3.     Rural as well as urban education
4.     Increase in number of literate Nigerians to meet the increasing demand for clerks and similar officials.

Unit 4   THE IMPACT OF THE PHELPS-STOKES COMMISSION ON EDUCATION DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA
Meaning and composition of the Phelps-strokes commission
The Phelps-stokes commission is a philanthropic organization in America. It was instituted in 1911 by Miss Caroline Phelps-stokes to enhance the religion and education of black peoples in Africa and the United States of America.
Objective of the Commission
The commission was not setup in 1920 to;
1.     Inquire into the educational work done in each of the areas to be studies at that time
2.     Investigate the educational needs of the people with special reference to the religions, social, hygienic and economic conditions
3.     Ascertain the extent to which item two above is being met
4.     Report filling the result of the study (Fafunwa;1974.120).
Finding of the Commission
The commission made the following findings;
1.     The education given to the people was not adapted to the people’s needs
2.     The education was too literal and classical to be useful to the people.
3.     The books and materials used in the schools were not appropriate to the people
4.     Very few craftsmen and technicians were trained
5.     Schools were not well organized and supervised.
6.     Health education was required
Recommendation of the Commission
i.            Provide for the development of agricultural and industrial skills;
ii.            Adopt improved systems of educational organization, supervision and inspection;
iii.            Evolve common principles and objective to guide educational practice in the various territories.
iv.            Design instructional programmes for health and leisure, religious life character development and family life
v.            Increase government participation in education through financing, control and supervision of educational activities;
Memorandum on Education in British Colonial territories
i.            Giving grant-in-aid to schools that conform to the prescribed regulations and attain the necessary standards
ii.            Preparing of vernacular textbooks, and adaptation of the contents and methods of teaching to African conditions, with illustration from African life and experiences.
iii.            Adaptation of education to the mentality, aptitudes, occupations and traditions of the various peoples
iv.            Making the acquisition of their knowledge of English and Arithmetic essential before the start of apprenticeship for skilled artisans
v.            Promoting better education of girls and women in the tropical African communities since educated wives and mothers meant educated homes.
Tutors Marked Assignment
1.     What does Phelps-stokes commission?
The Phelps-stokes commission is a philanthropic organization in America. It was instituted in 1991 by Miss Caroline Phelps-strokes to enhance the religion and education of black peoples in Africa and the United States of America. The foreign mission’s conference of North America appealed to the trustees of the fund to support a study of education in Africa.
2.     What were the objective of the commission?
The commission was setup in 1920 to:
1.     Inquire into the educational work done in each of the areas to be studied at that time.
2.     Investigate the educational needs of the people with special reference to the religious, social, hygienic and economic condition
3.     Ascertain the extent to which item two above is being met; and
4.     Report fully the result of the study (Fafunwa 1974p.120)
3.  Discuss some of the major recommendations of the Phelps-stokes commission
     The commission stressed that those concerned with education in African territories should;
1.     Design instructional programmes for health and leisure, religious life, character development and family life.
2.     Increase government participation in education through financing, control and supervision of educational activities.
3.     Evolve common principles and objectives to guide educational practice in the various.
4.     Provide for the development of agriculture and industrial skills.
5.     Adopt improved systems of educational organization, supervision and inspection
4.   Examine the impact of the commission on Nigeria education
The finding and the consequent recommendation of the commission had long lasting impacts on Nigeria education, Reacting to the 1922 report of the Phelps stokes commission, the British secretary of state for the colonies setup a committee on native education in the British tropical African dependies, in November 1923. The committee was to advise on educational matters and to assist him in advancing the progress of education in the area (Taiwo 1980p.70).

Unit 5    EDUCATIONAL SITUATION IN NORTHERN NIGERIA (PROVINCE)
Brief exposition of the educational situation in southern Nigeria up to 1926
Right from the entry point of western education in 1842, through the western Methodist mission and other missionaries that joined the southern part of the Nigeria embraced it. This was perhaps partly because the coming of the missionaries was on invitation from the Yoruba emigrants. Another possible reason could be that apart from the traditional education, there was no significant influence of any orthodox religion or culture in the area.
Factors that Hindered Early Development of Education in the North
1.     Geographical Factor
2.     Political Factor
3.     Religious Factor

Lugard and education development in Northern Nigeria
The Northern protectorate was created by the British colonial administration in 1899. Sir Fredrick Luggard was immediately appointed as the first high commissioner to the region. Luggard was faced with two main problems.
a)    How to fuse the colonial political administration with the well established muslim local administration and
b)    How to introduce western style education in such a region where organized Islamic education was in full progress.
The political, religious and social system firmly established in the Northern Nigeria before the arrival of the Christian missionary education made it difficult for the North to accept western education early enough. Efforts made by the various missionary organizations and the colonial administration failed to yield fruits in this regard.
Contribution of Dr. H.R.S Miller to the Educational Development in Northern Nigeria
1.     Mallams should be taught the Roman character (for writing Hausa language) Colloquial English, Arithmetic and Geography.
2.     Secular primary schools should be established through the protectorate.
3.     Cantonment schools for the education of the children of clerks, and other government official should be set up. That coastal no longer need to send their children far away for education – a practices which deterred clerks from applying for work in the Northern protectorate.
Hans Vischer’s Contribution to the Education Development in Northern Nigeria
1.     Widen their mental horizon without destroying their respect for race and parentage
2.     Supply men for employment in the government
3.     Produce men who will be able to carry on the native administration in the spirit of government
4.     Develop the national and racial characteristics of the native on such lines as will enable them use their own moral and physical forces to the best advanatage
Tutor Marked Assignment
1.     Examine the critically the factors that affected the early introduction of western education in Northern Nigeria
1.     Geographical factor: unlike the Islamic education, which came from the Sahara regions of North Africa from our coastal areas. The first to benefit from it were those along the areas close to the coast.
2.     Political factor: there was a well structured political system in the North, under the authority of the sultan of Sokoto. That made the people to be United and argue against any move to distort their culture. Such central power was lacking in the south. For instance, it took the consensus of both the Northern Emirs and the colonial administrators before secular education was introduced in the area.
3.     Religious factor: this appears to be the most crucial factor. As early as 11th Century AD. Islam had already come to some parts of the northern Nigeria.
2.  Discuss the efforts of the colonial administration and its agents in encouraging the western education in the Northern protectorate.
Western education in Nigeria – British conquest.



MODULES 3   SECONDARY AND HIGHER EDUCATION IN NIGERIA
Unit 1 Secondary Education in Nigeria 1859 – 1929
Introduction
The activities of the missionaries in the Lagos area of what was later named Nigeria began in 1842. This same period marked the beginning of western-type education in the area. The education was necessitated by the need for more personnel to spread gospel to the increasing audience.
Possible Factors that Delayed Early Establishment of Secondary School in Nigeria
It is necessary to note that the delay in the establishment of secondary education in Nigeria, especially by the colonial government, was deliberate.
The objective of Missionary/colonial education in Nigeria:
1.     The main objective of the missionaries in the coast of Nigeria was to evangelize the people. The whole aim of education was to achieve that objective. Since primary education could be provide them with the low ma-power as interpreters, teachers, messengers, clerks etc to facilitate the spread of the gospel, there was no need rushing for secondary education
2.     Conservation: secondary education could make the people develop critical thinking, which may not be helpful for the conservation policy of the colonial government. So it had to be discouraged.
3.     Finance: Another possible reason could be finance. Secondary education required higher man-power and huge financial spending which the missions could not conveniently afford on the part of the colonial government, interest was more on political and economic control with little interest in spending on education.
4.     Lugard summarized the above in his speech in 1921, when he said; The chief function of government primary and secondary schools among the primitive communities is to train the more promising boys from the village schools as teachers for those schools, as clerks for the local native schools and as interpreters.
5.     The beginning of secondary education in Nigeria: The first secondary school successfully establishment in Nigeria was the C.M.S Grammar school, Lagos in 1859. The school was modeled along the pattern of English Grammar school. It provide man-power for the colonial administration and European companies. The schools curriculum laid emphasis on grammar and Latin.
Problems of the Early Secondary Schools
The early schools taken together faced some general problems. Adesina (1997) itemized these problems. The first of these problems was organization. Due to the fact that there was no central school laws, no lagally constituted government to offer director, each mission administered its school in its own style.
Colonial Government contribution to secondary education in Southern Nigeria
The intervention of the colonial government in education within the period under review (1959-1923) was minimal. In fact, their assistance was more on providing regulatory framework in the way of ordinance (1882, 1887, 1961 and 1926).
Another aspect where they made some progress was in the way of grants-in-aid to various missionary schools, on prescribed conditions.
Contributions of Africans to Secondary Education in Nigeria
Based on the available information so far, African contribution to secondary education between 1859 and 1925 cannot be overemphasized. Without the indigenous Africans, education in general could have remained in its lowest ebb.
Tutor Marked Assignment
Discuss extensive, the development of secondary education in Nigeria between 1859 and 1929.
Answer
The government involvement in the establishment and administration of schools in Nigeria up to 1929 was very poor and discouraging. For instance between 1859 and 1929 there was 26 schools in southern Nigeria (none in the Northern Nigeria). A breakdown of the above showed that schools were owned by the C.M.S, 4 by the Methodist, 3 by the RCM, 2 each by the Baptist and the Primitive Baptist respectively. The colonial government had 3 while one belonged to the private individual (the Eko Boys High School Lagos)

UNIT 2:  EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA BETWEEN 1925 TO 1939.
3:1 An Overview of the 1925 memorandum on Education:
            One of the major outcomes of the Phelps stokes commission in Nigeria Education was the 1925 memorandum on education issued by the British colonial government. Hence, educational development in Nigeria took a different dimension from 1925.
Some of the basic principles stated in the memorandum were that:
1.     Religious and character training. This was of the greatest important, the central difficulty lies in finding ways to improve what is sound in indigenous tradition.
2.     The educational service must be made to attract the best men from Britain, whether for permanent careers or for short service appointment.
3.     Grants should be given to all voluntary schools which satisfy the requirements.
4.     Government themselves should control educational policy, but they will co operate with other educational agencies.
5.     Education should be adapted to the mentality aptitudes, occupations and traditions of the various peoples, conserving, as far as possible all sound healthy elements in the fabric of their social life, adapting them, where necessary, to change circumstance and progressive ideas, as an agent of natural growth and evolution
Sir Hugh Clifford and Education Development in Nigeria
Sir Hugh Clifford was responsible for transforming the memorandum on education of 1925 into practice. He pointed out two defects in the then educational system. The first was the poor quality of education and many poorly equipped schools, the second was poor funding of the education system.
He promised to make positive changes, by checking the growth of schools and improve educational funding. Sir Clifford proposed that elementary schools should be handled by the Christian mission in the south.
Eric R.J Hussey and the Amalgamation of the Education Department in Nigeria (1929-1936)
Mr. E.R.J Hussey’s appointment on 17th July, 1929 as the first Director of amalgamate education (between the north and south) was seen as a big development in the educational field. He tries to merge the two separate ordinances, though this did not work out until 1 January 1949 (Taiwo, 1980)
Hussey’s Review of Education Programme in Nigeria
In 1930 Hussey came with another policy on education which stated the current position and made proposals for all the levels of education both in the northern and southern provinces; primary, secondary and higher levels. In the north he proposed throe elementary training centers for vernacular teachers using Hausa as the medium of instruction. The centers were to be under the superintendents of education and other trained elementary teachers from England




Tutor marked assignment
Q1.  Discuss the major principles of the 1925 memorandum on education
Answer
Sir Hugh Clifford and Educational Development in Nigeria; Sir Hugh Clifford was responsible for transforming the memorandum on education of 1925 into practice. He pointed out two defects in the then educational system. The first was the poor quality of education and many poorly equipped schools, the second was poor funding of the education system.
He promised to make positive changes, by checking the growth of schools and improve educational funding. Sir Clifford proposed that elementary schools should be handled by the Christian mission in the south.
Q 2. Examine the role of any of the following in the development of education in Nigeria.
(a) Sir Hugh Clifford (b) Mr .E.R.J Hussey.
Answer : Eric R.J Hussaey and the amalgamation of the education department in Nigeria (1929-1936) Mr .E.R.J Hussey appointment on july, 1929 as the first director of amalgamation education (between the north and south)was seen as a big development in the educational field. He tried to merge the two separate ordinances, though this did not work out until 1st January 1949 (Taiwo 1980 ) in the north, the government took responsibility of opening and maintaining schools, though on the condition that there were enough trained teachers. The Government took because the demand for western education after war was not much. As a result there was no proliferation of poorly equipped school.
UNIT 3: HIGHER EDUCATION IN NIGERIA   
Higher education was not within the reach of the missionaries, due to its cost implication. The colonial government who had the resources also, not interested to venture into it. There were great agitations the within and outside the country for the establishment of this level of education.
FACTORS THAT LED TO THE ESTABLISHMENT OF HIGHER EDUCATION.
1.     The agitation from the nationalists for higher education in Nigeria and Africa as a whole.
2.     The role of the mass media in extending the voice of the people for higher education across the continent of Africa.
3.     The higher demand for indigenous middle level manpower by the colonial government and the then European companies.
4.     The increased turn-out of secondary school leavers in Nigeria
5.     The world war exposure and the high sense of equality of men developed by some of our soldiers after the war.
6.     The educational experience and competence of Mr .E.R.J. Hussey.
The Contributions Of Yaba Higher College.  
1.     The establishment of yaba Higher College completed the circle of the three levels of education in Nigeria.
2.     It provided learning opportunity for some of our secondary school leavers.
3.     It produced some Nigerians who occupied assistantship positions in the public or civil service or private sectors of the country.
Problems Of Yaba Higher College.
1.     The curriculum was limited to the areas of need of the colonial government and not based on the general needs and aspirations of Nigerians.
2.     The products of the college could not rise above the assistant position, to become medical, engineering, agriculture, e.t.c
3.     The college diploma was criticized as being inferior and had no recognition outside Nigeria.
The Role Of The Commissions in the Development of Education in Nigeria.
The Asquith Commission.
The Asquith commission was set up in August 1943 to
1.     Look into the principles that guide the promotion of higher education, learning and research as well as the development of universities in the British colonies and
2.     Explore possible means through which university and other agents in the United Kingdom could assist the institutions of higher education in the colonies to achieve the principles above.
RECOMMENDATION OF THE ASQUITH COMMISSION
1.     Universities should be established in the areas as soon as possible, starting with university colleges.
2.     Training of teachers should be given highest priority.
3.     Research should be a very important aspect of university life.


THE ELLIOT COMISSION
            The Elliot Commission was setup in June 1943 by the secretary of State to report on higher education in British West Africa the Thirteen member commission was charged with the responsibility of;
a.      Looking into the alleged Lukewarm attitude of the colonial government towards establishing higher education and
b.     Verifying the fact in the alleged lack of opportunity for Africans to participate in the development of their country.
RECOMMENDATION OF THE ELLIOT COMMISSION
The Elliot Commission unanimously and strongly agreed on the need for higher education in the area but was divided on;
i.                    The number of university colleges and
ii.                 Where the university colleges would be sited
The journey of higher education in Nigeria was very rough. Even when it came due to pressure on the colonial government by the nationalists and the media, it was very slow. It began only certificates and lower diplomas, then to university colleges and finally to full university.
The University College, Ibadan
The University College started in Ibadan on 18th January 1948 with 104 students (all residential), under the principal designate Dr. Kenneth Mellanby. The college was criticizes on the basis that:
1.     It did not offer higher degrees
2.     It was not truly African in scope, nature and curriculum
3.     The college placed very high premium on entrance examination condition
Ashby Commission (April 1959-September 1960)
Ashby Commission (April 1959-September 1960) the Ashby commission was the first Nigeria Commission set up on Higher Education in 1959 to investigate and recommend to the government among others, on the need for higher education in Nigeria. The Nine – man commission was composed of three members each from Nigeria, Britain and America. The commission report was so comprehensive that it embraced the secondary, technical, commercial, veterinary and higher education needs of Nigeria. It also projected the manpower needs of the country up to the 1960’s and worked out effective strategies for realizing such through the various levels of our education.
Major finding of the commission
1.     Few student were attracted to agriculture and technology
2.     Secondary education was too literal
3.     Lack of continuity from primary to secondary schools. It stated that not well prepared for higher education, starting that three-quarters of the teachers were uncertified.
TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT
1.     Discuss extensively the development of Higher Education in Nigeria between 1932 and 1960.
Higher education was not within the reach of the missionaries, due to its cost implication. The colonial government who had the resources also, not interested to venture into it. There were great agitations from within and outside the country for the establishment of this level of education. This, gradually yielded little fruit in 1932 with the establishment of Yaba Higher College. This unit examines the development of Higher education in Nigeria from 1932 to 1962
Q(2). Examine the impact of any of the following commissions on the development of higher education in Nigeria:
(a) Asquith Commission
(b)   Elliot      Commission
(c) Ashby     Commission
Ashby Commission (April 1959-September 1960) the Ashby commission was the first Nigeria Commission set up on Higher Education in 1959 to investigate and recommend to the government among others, on the need for higher education in Nigeria. The Nine – man commission was composed of three members each from Nigeria, Britain and America. The commission’s report was so comprehensive that it embraced the secondary, technical, commercial, veterinary and higher education needs of Nigeria. It also projected the manpower needs of the country up to the 1960’s and worked out effective strategies for realizing such through the various levels of our education.

UNIT 4:   REGIONALIZATION AND EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT IN NIGERIA.
The creation of regional government in Nigeria: Arthur Richard’s constitution of 1946 divided Nigeria into three regions; West, East and north. The 1951 Macpherson’s constitution gave each region power to legislate and make laws on education, health , agriculture and local government within the boundaries of its regions . this constitutional provision led to the division of education department into three parallel department to reflect the three regions.
Western Region and the universal primary education (U.P.E):
When the action Group won its first general election in 1952, its leader chief Obafemi Awolowo, in his budget speech declared that his government would give special attention to education and health. The ground plan for the programme included massive teacher training scheme, expansion of teacher training facilities, secondary schools as well as introduction of modern schools and technical education (Osokoya, 1995)
The government was fully aware of the problems confronting education in Nigeria, earlier, and before the launching of the U. P . E Scheme in 19955 some of which were:
(a) Parents attitudes toward sending their children to school.
(b)Shortage of manpower in schools and
(c) Lack of proper funding.
Eastern Region and the introduction of U.P.E Scheme: In 1953 the government of Eastern Nigeria is made a proposal for free education in the region. The proposal was a modest one it proposed that 45 percent of the cost of junior primary education programme by 1957 would be paid by the Local government bodies.
U.P.E Scheme In Lagos City Council:
The Macpherson constitution of 1951 created only three regions, in which case, Lagos was only three regions, in which case, Lagos was carved out as a federal Territory and so was not part of the 1955 universal primary Education scheme in the western region.
Northern Region and its position on U.P.E
The government of the northern region was more interested in adult literacy programmes than the universal primary Education. However, in 1959 , the government planned primary education to achieve quality rather than quantity. Hence, schools could only be established in areas where there were qualified teachers.
Increase in secondary Education in Nigeria
Meanwhile, the aggressive  expansion of primary education, at this period also had influential effect on secondary education in all the regions. For instance there were a total of 4,804 students in various secondary schools in Lagos city council in 1959.
TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT.
(a) Examine the major provision of the 1946 and 1951 constitutions in Nigeria .
The Richard’s constitution of 1946 and subsequent constitution of Macpherson in 1951 created the country into regions and empowered each region to have its own educational autonomy this unit examine the development of education in each region between 1949 and 1959.
(b)How did the constitutional provision affect educational development in each of the region?
Answer – in western region and the universal primary Education
(1)                        There were large numbers of  untrained teachers
(2)                        There was lack of continuity in staffing
(3)                        There was too much attention to teachers private to the neglect of the      children.
(4)                        There were too many large classes
(5)                        It also found out that the syllabus was poor
(6)                        There were too many under aged children in schools .
Eastern Region and the introduction of UPE Scheme . the Eastern region Universal primary education started to have problems of implementation less than one year it was launched. The region could not meet up with its financial obligation to the scheme. There was also the swift opposition from the catholic mission that had about 60 percent of primary schools in the region then.
·        Northern Region and its position on UPE The aggressive expansion of primary education at this period also had influential effect on secondary education in all the regions.
·        For instance there were a total of 4,804 students in various secondary schools in Lagos city council in 1959.

UNIT 5: THE NATIONAL CURRICULUM CONFERENCE AND THE NATIONAL POLICY ON EDUCATION:
In 1969 there was the need to re-orientate the mind of all Nigerians through educational curriculum conference in Nigeria and its after math that resulted to the national policy on Education.
Why the conference
Some of the major steps taken by the federal government on education after independence, despite the setback caused by the Nigeria civil war, were the call for the National Curriculum conference in 1969, the introduction of universal [free] primary education [1976] and the establishment of more Federal Universities, Colleges and Polytechnics to boost the nation’s manpower.
The mandate of the conference.
The conference was given the mandate to review the existing goals of Nigerian education with the aim of identifying new goals for the country’s education at all levels. They were asked to produce guidelines on what should be accomplished in the system in the following areas:
        i.            The needs of youth and adult individuals in our society;
     ii.            The socio-economic needs values,aspirations and development of our society, and
   iii.            The curriculum substance, the subject contenet of the system, whcich is the means of the goals[Adaralegbe 1972 P,X III]
The national policy on education is a formal document produced by the federal republic of Nigeria as a guide to all the levels of education in the country. The document whcich was frist published in 1977 was a direct result of the national curriculum conference. The national curriculum conference was summomed in Lagos in 1969 ( at the peak of the Nigerian Civil War) under the military leadership of general yakubu Gowon, to find out the way education could be used to fashion a united Nigeria. Major issue concerning the unity peace and self reliance were discussed and recommendations made. It was followed up with seminars which later resulted to the production of the document known as the national policy on education.
National Policy on Education
The national policy on education is a formal document produced by Federal Republic of Nigeria as a guide to all the levels of education in the country. The document which was first published in 1977 was a direct result of the National curriculum conference [8th – 12th September 1969].
The Importance of the National Policy on Education.
1.     It is truly a Nigerian focused policy on education.
2.     It is used to address the major problems of the nation created by the colonial government constitution in Nigeria.
3.     The national policy on education sets certain objectives for the Nation(Nigeria) and the Nations education.
4.     It gives a comprehensive structure of the nations education from pre-primary, primary, secondary, technical, grammar, commercial, teacher education to post secondary education.
5.     It introduced a new system of education  called the 6-3-3-4 system, which aims at realizing a self reliant and self sufficient nation and recently the introduction of the universal Basic Education.
6.     The national policy on education has a broad curriculum which aims to creating enough learning opportunity for all children, irrespective of gender, age, ability, class, interest e.t.c
7.     It makes education in Nigeria a full government enterprise and so gives the government a contralised control  of education in the country.
8.     It lays strong foundation for the 6-3-3-4 system of education in Nigeria.
Problems of the National Policy on Education
There are so many problems working against implementation of the genuine objective of the National Policy on Education. Some of these include;
1.     The issue of National Philosophy
2.     Political Instability in the country
3.     Funding
4.     Corruption

                        TUTOR MARKED ASSIGNMENT QUESTION
1.     Examine the circumstances that led to the 1969 curriculum conference in Nigeria in 1969 there was need, to re-orientate the mind of all Nigerians through education. Hence, the national curriculum conference was held. This unit examined the national curriculum conference in Nigeria and its aftermath that resulted to the National policy on education.
Q(2) Examine the importance of the National policy on education.
9.     It is truly a Nigerian focused policy on education.
10.           It is used to address the major problems of the nation created by the colonial government constitution in Nigeria.
11.           The national policy on education sets certain objectives for the Nation(Nigeria) and the Nations education.
12.           It gives a comprehensive structure of the nations education from pre-primary, primary, secondary, technical, grammar, commercial, teacher education to post secondary education.
13.           It introduced a new system of education  called the 6-3-3-4 system, which aims at realizing a self reliant and self sufficient nation and recently the introduction of the universal Basic Education.
14.           The national policy on education has a broad curriculum which aims to creating enough learning opportunity for all children, irrespective of gender, age, ability, class, interest e.t.c
15.           It makes education in Nigeria a full government enterprise and so gives the government a contralised control  of education in the country.
16.           It lays strong foundation for the 6-3-3-4 system of education in Nigeria.

1)   Discuss extensively, the development of secondary education in Nigeria between 1859 and 1929.
Based on the available information so far, African contributions to secondary education between 1859 and 1925 cannot be over emphasized. Without the indigenous Africans, education in general could have remained in its lowest ebb. Judging from the inception of education which started with the missionaries, it was the help of Ajayi crowther who fostered education in Yoruba land as well as Eastern Nigeria.
Discuss the principles and practices of the 1925 memorandum on education in Nigeria
Some of the basic principles stated in the memorandum were that:
1)   Government themselves should control educational policy, but they will co-operate with other educational agencies.
2)   Education should be adapted to the mentality aptitudes, occupations and traditions of the various peoples, conserving, as far as possible all sound healthy elements in the fabric of their social life, adapting them, where necessary, to change circumstance  and progressive ideas, as an agent of natural growth and evolution.
3)   Religious and character training. This was of the greatest importance the central difficulty lies in finding ways to improve what is sound in indigenous tradition.
4)   The educational service must be made to attract the best from Britain, whether for permanent careers or for short service appointments.
5)   Grant should be given to all voluntary schools which satisfy the requirements.

3.  Discuss the development of Higher Education in Nigeria between 1932 and 1960
The first Higher Education Institution established in Nigeria was the Yaba Higher college (Lagos). It was established in 1932 by the colonial government, but commenced studies n 1934. The college, though established in 1932, began intensive studies in 1934 in course such as Medicine, Agriculture, Engineering, Survey, Commence, Forestry, Veterinary Medicine and Teacher Education.
2b. What could be considered as some of the problem affecting its full implementation in Nigeria
1.     The issue of National philosophy: The National Policy on Education and the Philosophy of education in Nigeria must be directed by a sound national philosophy.
2.     Political instability in the country: Political instability in Nigeria was produced instability in facts of the nation’s life, including educations.
3.     Funding: education in Nigeria is suffering from acute shortage of fund.
4.     Corruption: corruption and corrupt practices in Nigeria have affected every institution in the country.

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  1. very educative..... i learnt so much from this

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