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POPULAR PARTICIPATION, DEMOCRACY AND RULE OF LAW


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SCHEME OF WORK
POPULAR PARTICIPATION ………………………………………………………………………… ……………..… 1
DEMOCRACY …………………………………………………………………………………………………………...…….. 2
CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRACY ………………………………………………………………………..…………… 3
RULE OF LAW …………………………………………………………………………………………………...…………………. 4 



POPULAR PARTICIPATION
MEANING OF POPULAR PARTICIPATION: This refers to the active involvement in socio-political and economic activities of a country by her citizens.
Types of popular Participation
I.            Political popular participation.
II.            Social popular participation.
III.            Religious popular participation.
IV.            Sports.
Need for popular participation in Civic Society
I.            Sense of Balance.
II.            Involvement of the people.
III.            Stability consciousness and education.
IV.            Legitimacy of government.
V.            Provision of Opportunities.
Traditional and Modern mode of popular participation
I.            It is simple.
II.            It also saves time and energy.
III.            It saves cost.
IV.            It gives confidence to both leaders and followers.
V.            Bribery and corrupt practices are absent.
VI.            There is no court litigation.
VII.            The issue of opposition does not encourage bitterness and rancor.
Advantage of Modern mode of Popular Participation
I.            It gives the citizen opportunity to elect their leaders.
II.            It involves all eligible voters.
III.            It promotes growth and development of democracy.
IV.            It allows votes to assess the performance of those in authority.
V.            There is good link between the electorate and the elected members.
Disadvantages of Modern Popular Participation
I.            It is very expensive to run and get fair result.
II.            Many voters are ignorant of why they are voting.
III.            It breeds disorder, lawlessness and thurgery.
IV.            It encourages the use of money to lobby the electorate.
V.            It helps in institutionalizing bribery and corruption.
VI.            It is time and energy consuming.
VII.            It promotes unhealthy competition.



DEMOCRACY
MEANING OF DEMOCRACY: Democracy is a system of government where the will of the majority of the people in a political setting predominates. It is literarily the “rule of the masses”.
MERIT OR IMPORTANCE OF DEMOCRACY
I.            Democracy provides easy means of governing the people with diverse cultural orientations.
II.            It allows for election of best hands and brain in governance.
III.            It ensure maintenance of law and order
IV.            It gives room for active participation by the masses.
V.            It provides smooth means of changes in general.
VI.            It encourages education of the masses to enable people make inferred choices.
VII.            It safeguards fundamental human right and protection of minority right.
VIII.            Democracy promotes the welfare of the people.
IX.            It is based on the principle of equality.
Problems of Democracy
I.            Democracy gives more to quality ratio than quantity.
II.            Democracy makes government and governance expensive.
III.            It is dictatorship of the majority.
IV.            It allows only few to become professional politicians.
V.            Those elected to represent the people often represent their own.
VI.            The political educations in democratic states are often haphazardly done.
VII.            Decision making is so slow because of many stakeholder and legal processes.
VIII.            There is always unnecessary rivalry among ethnic or tribal groups.
IX.            Unnecessary opposition to the party in power is the order of the day in a democracy setting.
Principles and processes of Democracy
The main principles which help the workability, practice and processes of democracy are;
I.            Majority rule.
II.            Periodic election.
III.            Respect for the right of the minority.
IV.            The right of the people to choose their leaders without coercion.
V.            The prevalence of the rule of law
VI.            The practice of separation of powers.
VII.            The principles of equality of all citizens before the law.
VIII.            Full guarantee of fundamental human rights.
IX.            Mass participation in democratic process.
X.            The practice of judicial review.
The Democratic Process includes:
I.            Popular consensus.
II.            Appointment of a constitution drafting committee.
III.            Constituting a constituent assembly.
IV.            Ratification and adoption of the drafted constitution.
V.            Establishment of electoral commission and electoral courts/tribunals.
VI.            Formation, registration and recognition of political parties.
VII.            Party primaries and campaigns.
VIII.            General elections.



CONSTITUTIONAL DEMOCRACY
Meaning of constitutional democracy: it refers to the practice of a democracy culture based on the rule of law and the constitution.
Types of constitutional democracy
I.            Constitutional monarchism
II.            Constitutional republicanism.
Major forms of constitutional Republicanism
I.            Unitary or parliamentary system of government
II.            Presidential system of government
III.            Socialism/communist government
IV.            Capitalism
Features of Constitutional Democracy
I.            Constitutional government.
II.            Majority rules.
III.            Partisan ideology.
IV.            Respect for or predominance of the constitution.
V.            Periodically free and fair elections.
VI.            Independence of the judiciary.
VII.            A government accountable to the people.
VIII.            Equal participation in the political process.
IX.            Informed electorates.
X.            Mass media.
XI.            Popular sovereignty.
XII.            Universal adult franchise.
XIII.            Mass participation.
XIV.            Separation of powers.
XV.            Representatives.
Advantages of constitutional democracy
I.            Constitutional democracy accommodates the needs and political ideologies of modern states.
II.            It abolish feudal, theocratic and dictatorships.
III.            The law and the constitution are supreme.
IV.            It sustained smooth transition to leadership.
V.            It encourages patriotism, loyal and obedience to the state and law.
VI.            It encourages political mass participation.
VII.            It prevent abuse of power
VIII.            It promotes equality, fair and equality of persons and fundamental human rights.
IX.            It believes in popular sovereignty.
X.            it encourage constitutionalism
Disadvantages of constitutional democracy
I.            Most representatives represent their own interest rather than the masses interest.
II.            Dictatorship of the majority replaces the dictatorship by one powerful man.
III.            Constitutional democracy is very expensive.
IV.            It slows down decisions making process.
V.            It introduces electioneering problems and promotes partisanism.
VI.            It produces only few political leaders.
VII.            It encourages corruption in government.
VIII.            It operates rigidly and does not yet yield to urgent situations.


RULE OF LAW
MEANING OF RULE OF LAW: This means the governance or governing of the people through the guideline of the law.
Basic principle of rule of law:
I.            Every citizens of a state has national and inalienable fundamental human rights.
II.            The law of the state is both predominant and supreme.
III.            Every member of a state is equal before the law.
Limitation of Rule of Law
These Include;
I.            Imposing state of emergency.
II.            Military intervention or stratocracy.
III.            Lack of independence of the judiciary.
IV.            The setting up social panels and tribunal.
V.            The granting of immunity and discretionary powers to the certain government officials.
VI.            The immunity of the minors or under age children.
VII.            Strike action by the workforce and rampage by aggrieved citizenry
VIII.            A clinically confirm insane status of a citizen
IX.            Delegated legislation granted some bodies and public officers.
Importance of Rule of Law
I.            The rule of law guarantees equality before the law.
II.            It safeguards one from molestation, brutality, indiscrimination arrest and coercive oppression.
III.            It guarantees the exercise of fundamental human right and personal liberties.
IV.            It is opposed to arbitrary rule of government.
V.            It is opposed to trial inspired courts and tribunal.
VI.            It makes for orderly society and good governance.
VII.            It gives rights to seek redress when their right are infringed.
VIII.            The rule of law basically preserves human life and means to its sustenance.
Problem of Rule of Law
I.            Laws give more room only for the ideal and often remain indifferent to reality and emotional experiences of the people.
II.            Laws enacted by democratic oligarchs often stand against the will of the masses.
III.            There is much delay in law making and it enforcement.
IV.            Sometimes these laws are opposed to revolution, generational leap and innovations needed for moderning and rapid developmental needs.
V.            The problem of inequality is not adequately taken care of.
VI.            The law grants immunity to high political office holders even while breaching the law.
VII.            The law is not made by all but the ruling class who protect their own class interest against the overall interest of the citizenry.

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